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EC Details
EC number
Accepted name
xanthine dehydrogenase
xanthine + NAD+ + H2O = urate + NADH + H+
Other name(s)
NAD+-xanthine dehydrogenase, xanthine-NAD+ oxidoreductase, xanthine/NAD+ oxidoreductase, xanthine oxidoreductase
Systematic name
xanthine:NAD+ oxidoreductase
CAS registry number
Acts on a variety of purines and aldehydes, including hypoxanthine. The mammalian enzyme can also convert all-trans retinol to all-trans-retinoate, while the substrate is bound to a retinoid-binding protein [14]. The enzyme from eukaryotes contains [2Fe-2S], FAD and a molybdenum centre. The mammalian enzyme predominantly exists as the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase (EC During purification the enzyme is largely converted to an O2-dependent form, xanthine oxidase (EC The conversion can be triggered by several mechanisms, including the oxidation of cysteine thiols to form disulfide bonds [2,6,8,15] [which can be catalysed by EC, enzyme-thiol transhydrogenase (glutathione-disulfide) in the presence of glutathione disulfide] or limited proteolysis, which results in irreversible conversion. The conversion can also occur in vivo [2,7,15].
created 1972 as EC, transferred 1984 to EC, modified 1989, transferred 2004 to EC, modified 2011
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