Information on EC 1.1.1.16 - galactitol 2-dehydrogenase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.1.1.16
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
galactitol 2-dehydrogenase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
galactitol + NAD+ = D-tagatose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Also converts other alditols containing an L-threo-configuration adjacent to a primary alcohol group into the corresponding sugars
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REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
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redox reaction
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reduction
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Galactose metabolism
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D-altritol and galactitol degradation
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
galactitol:NAD+ 2-oxidoreductase
Also converts other alditols containing an L-threo-configuration adjacent to a primary alcohol group into the corresponding sugars. The enzyme from Agrobacterium fabrum C58 is part of D-altritol and galactitol degradation pathways.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9028-23-3
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
gene ladB
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
bv. viciae
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene lad1
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene lad1
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
malfunction
metabolism
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1,2-butanediol + NAD+
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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?
1,2-pentanediol + NAD+
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
1,2-propanediol + NAD+
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
?
1,6-hexanediol + NAD+
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
best substrate
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?
1-arabinitol + NAD+
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
2-butanol + NAD+
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
aldonitol + NAD+
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
D-arabinitol + NAD+
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
?
D-mannitol + NAD+
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
D-ribitol + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
galactitol + NAD+
D-tagatose + NADH
show the reaction diagram
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r
galactitol + NAD+
D-tagatose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
galactitol + NAD+
L-xylo-3-hexulose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
galactitol + NAD+
tagatose + NADH
show the reaction diagram
L-arabitol + NAD+
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
L-arabitol + NAD+
L-ribulose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
?
L-arabitol + NAD+
L-xylulose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
L-iditol + NAD+
L-sorbose + NADH
show the reaction diagram
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r
myosinitol + NAD+
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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?
sorbitol + NAD+
D-fructose + NADH
show the reaction diagram
sorbitol + NAD+
D-fructose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
xylitol + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
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?
xylitol + NAD+
L-xylulose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
D-ribitol + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
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?
galactitol + NAD+
D-tagatose + NADH
show the reaction diagram
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r
galactitol + NAD+
D-tagatose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q1MLL4
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?
galactitol + NAD+
L-xylo-3-hexulose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
galactitol + NAD+
tagatose + NADH
show the reaction diagram
L-arabitol + NAD+
L-ribulose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
?
L-arabitol + NAD+
L-xylulose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
L-iditol + NAD+
L-sorbose + NADH
show the reaction diagram
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r
sorbitol + NAD+
D-fructose + NADH
show the reaction diagram
xylitol + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
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?
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
the cofactor binding site in short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases enzymes is characterized by the conserved NAD-binding glycine-rich Rossmann fold domain (TGGGRAIG)
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METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Mg2+
required, the enzyme contains one magnesium atom per dimer, consistent with the presence of a structural metal ion. The homotetrameric enzyme contains two Mg2+ binding sites
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
8.8 - 200
galactitol
1 - 55
L-arabitol
additional information
additional information
Michaelis-Menten kinetics
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TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
13.91
galactitol
pH 9.5, 35°C
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1.581
galactitol
pH 9.5, 35°C
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
9.5
recombinant enzyme
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.5 - 10
activity profile, overview. The enzyme shows over 60% of its maximum activity at pH values of 8.0-10.0
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
35
recombinant enzyme
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
15 - 55
activity profile, overview
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
114000
recombinant enzyme, gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
homotetramer
additional information
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
30 - 40
when tested at 30°C and 35°C, the enzyme is able to retain about 50% of its activity after 114 and 54 min, respectively, while at 40°C, 50% of its activity is retained after 28 min
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-20°C, 5% loss of activity within 5 months
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Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
partial
recombinant C-terminally His6-tagged LadB from Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CEN.PK2-1D by nickel affinity chromatography
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recombinant His-tagged enzyme in an active soluble form from Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) by nickel affinity chromatography
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
gene lad1, expression of C-terminally His6-tagged enzyme in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
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gene ladB, orf JGI183900, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expression of C-terminally His6-tagged enzyme in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3), functional expression of gene ladB under the lac promoter, functional co-expression of Aspergillus niger wild-type and C-terminally His6-tagged LadB and LadA, encoding L-arabitol dehydrogenae, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CEN.PK2-1D
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gene rlgdh, recombinant overexpression of His-tagged enzyme in an active soluble form in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3)
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
gene lad1 is induced in response to L-arabinose, D-galactose, and galactitol
gene ladB is induced in response to D-galactose and galactitol
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
synthesis